nvus-10q_20200331.htm

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, DC 20549

 

FORM 10-Q

 

(Mark One)

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2020 

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from            to           

Commission File Number: 001-36620

 

NOVUS THERAPEUTICS, INC.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

 

 

Delaware

 

20-1000967

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

 

 

19900 MacArthur Blvd., Suite 550

Irvine, California

 

92612

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

(Zip Code)

 

 

(949) 238-8090

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Trading

Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $0.001 par value

 

NVUS

 

Nasdaq Capital Market

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.      Yes      No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).      Yes      No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.    

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).      Yes      No

As of May 11, 2020, there were 16,069,562 shares of the Registrant’s common stock outstanding.

 

 

 


Forward-Looking Statements

This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains “forward-looking statements” as defined by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, which statements involve substantial risks and uncertainties. Any statements in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q about the Company’s future expectations, plans and prospects, including statements about its strategy, future operations, development of its product candidates, the review of strategic alternatives and the outcome of such review and other statements containing words such as “believes,” “anticipates,” “plans,” “expects,” “estimates,” “intends,” “predicts,” “projects,” “targets,” “could,” “may,” and similar expressions, constitute forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements include such identifying words. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to statements regarding:

 

the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our operations, including our ability to meet development timelines and access capital markets;

 

expectations regarding the timing for the commencement and completion of product development or clinical trials for the Company’s product candidates;

 

the timing, costs, conduct and outcome of preclinical studies and clinical trials;

 

meeting future clinical and regulatory milestones, such as New Drug Application (“NDA”) submissions;

 

the risk that clinical trials of the Company’s product candidates may not be successful in establishing safety and tolerability or efficacy;

 

the Company’s plans and timing with respect to seeking regulatory approvals and uncertainties regarding the regulatory process;

 

the anticipated treatment of data by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”), the European Medicines Agency (“EMA”) or other regulatory authorities of the Company’s product candidates;

 

the rate and degree of market acceptance and clinical utility of the Company’s product candidates;

 

the Company’s commercialization, marketing, and manufacturing capabilities and strategy;

 

the Company’s intellectual property position and strategy;

 

the Company’s ability to identify additional product candidates with significant commercial potential;

 

the availability of funds and resources to pursue the Company’s research and development projects, including preclinical studies and clinical trials of its product candidates, and manufacturing activities.

 

the Company’s estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;

 

the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern;

 

developments relating to the Company’s competitors and industry;

 

the impact of government laws and regulations; and

 

the duration over which the Company’s cash balances will fund its operations.

Actual results may differ materially from those indicated by such forward-looking statements as a result of various important factors, including: the ability to develop commercially viable product formulations on a timely basis, or at all; the sufficiency of the Company’s cash resources; the ability to obtain necessary regulatory and ethics approvals to commence additional clinical trials; whether data from early clinical trials will be indicative of the data that will be obtained from future clinical trials; whether the results of clinical trials will warrant submission for regulatory approval of any investigational product; whether any such submission will receive approval from the FDA or equivalent foreign regulatory agencies and, if the Company is able to obtain such approval for an investigational product, whether it will be successfully distributed and marketed; and the severity, magnitude and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic, including economic and other impacts of the pandemic and of and actions taken in response to it by governments, businesses, and individuals. These risks and uncertainties, as well as other risks and uncertainties that could cause the Company’s actual results to differ significantly from the forward-looking statements contained herein, are described in greater detail in Part II, Item 1A, Risk Factors in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.

Any forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q speak only as of the date hereof and not of any future date, and the Company expressly disclaims any intent to update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

 

 

 

2


NOVUS THERAPEUTICS, INC.

FORM 10-Q

FOR THE QUARTER ENDED MARCH 31, 2020

Table of Contents

 

 

 

 

Page

 

 

 

 

PART I.

FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1.

Financial Statements

 

4

 

 

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as of March 31, 2020 (Unaudited) and December 31, 2019

 

4

 

 

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss for the Three Months Ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 (Unaudited)

 

 

5

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity for the Three Months Ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 (Unaudited)

 

6

 

 

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Three Months Ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 (Unaudited)

 

7

 

 

 

 

 

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

 

8

 

 

 

 

Item 2.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

20

 

 

 

 

Item 3.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

27

 

 

 

 

Item 4.

Controls and Procedures

 

27

 

 

 

 

PART II.

OTHER INFORMATION

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1.

Legal Proceedings

 

28

 

 

 

 

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

 

28

 

 

 

 

Item 2.

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

 

56

 

 

 

 

Item 3.

Defaults Upon Senior Securities

 

56

 

 

 

 

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

56

 

 

 

 

Item 5.

Other Information

 

56

 

 

 

 

Item 6.

Exhibits

 

56

 

 

 

 

Exhibit Index

 

57

 

 

 

 

Signatures

 

58

 

3


PART I - FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1. Financial Statements

NOVUS THERAPEUTICS, INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

(In thousands, except share data)

 

 

 

March 31,

2020

 

 

December 31,

2019

 

 

 

(Unaudited)

 

 

(Note 2)

 

ASSETS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash

 

$

11,785

 

 

$

8,791

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

 

1,088

 

 

 

1,180

 

Total current assets

 

 

12,873

 

 

 

9,971

 

Property and equipment, net

 

 

3

 

 

 

5

 

Operating lease asset, net

 

 

272

 

 

 

316

 

Other assets

 

 

572

 

 

 

639

 

Total assets

 

$

13,720

 

 

$

10,931

 

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable

 

$

741

 

 

$

329

 

Current operating lease liability

 

 

184

 

 

 

180

 

Accrued expenses and other liabilities

 

 

953

 

 

 

813

 

Total current liabilities

 

 

1,878

 

 

 

1,322

 

Non-current operating lease liability

 

 

97

 

 

 

144

 

Total liabilities

 

 

1,975

 

 

 

1,466

 

Commitments and contingencies (Note 5)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stockholders’ equity:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preferred stock, $0.001 par value, 5,000,000 shares authorized at March 31, 2020

   and December 31, 2019; 3,796 and 0 shares issued and outstanding at

   March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common stock, $0.001 par value, 200,000,000 shares authorized at March 31, 2020

   and December 31, 2019; 16,069,562 and 12,967,338 shares issued and

   outstanding at March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively

 

 

16

 

 

 

13

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

 

77,488

 

 

 

67,034

 

Accumulated deficit

 

 

(65,759

)

 

 

(57,582

)

Total stockholders’ equity

 

 

11,745

 

 

 

9,465

 

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity

 

$

13,720

 

 

$

10,931

 

 

See accompanying notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

4


NOVUS THERAPEUTICS, INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE LOSS

(In thousands, except share and per share data)

(Unaudited)

 

 

 

For the Three Months

Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

Operating expenses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

$

1,648

 

 

$

2,989

 

General and administrative

 

 

1,730

 

 

 

1,886

 

Total operating expenses

 

 

3,378

 

 

 

4,875

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(3,378

)

 

 

(4,875

)

Other income (expense), net

 

 

30

 

 

 

(6

)

Warrant inducement expense

 

 

(4,829

)

 

 

 

Net loss and comprehensive loss

 

$

(8,177

)

 

$

(4,881

)

Net loss per share, basic and diluted

 

$

(0.47

)

 

$

(0.52

)

Weighted-average common shares outstanding, basic and diluted

 

 

17,267,123

 

 

 

9,427,073

 

 

See accompanying notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

5


NOVUS THERAPEUTICS, INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

(In thousands, except share data)

(Unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preferred Stock

 

 

Common Stock

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

Additional

Paid-In

Capital

 

 

Accumulated

Deficit

 

 

Total

 

Balance as of December 31, 2019

 

 

 

 

$

 

 

 

12,967,338

 

 

$

13

 

 

$

67,034

 

 

$

(57,582

)

 

$

9,465

 

Issuance of common stock in connection with

   exercise of warrants, net of issuance costs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6,898,224

 

 

 

7

 

 

 

5,184

 

 

 

 

 

 

5,191

 

Cancellation of common stock in connection

   with exchange for preferred stock

 

 

3,796

 

 

 

 

 

 

(3,796,000

)

 

 

(4

)

 

 

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Warrant inducement expense

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4,829

 

 

 

 

 

 

4,829

 

Stock-based compensation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

437

 

 

 

 

 

 

437

 

Net loss and other comprehensive loss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(8,177

)

 

 

(8,177

)

Balance as of March 31, 2020

 

 

3,796

 

 

$

 

 

 

16,069,562

 

 

$

16

 

 

$

77,488

 

 

$

(65,759

)

 

$

11,745

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Balance as of December 31, 2018

 

 

 

 

$

 

 

 

9,422,143

 

 

$

9

 

 

$

56,054

 

 

$

(41,571

)

 

$

14,492

 

Issuance of common stock at-the-market, net

   of issuance costs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

25,218

 

 

 

 

 

 

107

 

 

 

 

 

 

107

 

Stock-based compensation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

211

 

 

 

 

 

 

211

 

Net loss and other comprehensive loss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(4,881

)

 

 

(4,881

)

Balance as of March 31, 2019

 

 

 

 

$

 

 

 

9,447,361

 

 

$

9

 

 

$

56,372

 

 

$

(46,452

)

 

$

9,929

 

 

See accompanying notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

6


NOVUS THERAPEUTICS, INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

(In thousands)

(Unaudited)

 

 

 

For the Three Months

Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

Operating activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(8,177

)

 

$

(4,881

)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Depreciation and amortization

 

 

2

 

 

 

2

 

Amortization of operating lease asset

 

 

44

 

 

 

43

 

Warrant inducement expense

 

 

4,829

 

 

 

 

Stock-based compensation

 

 

437

 

 

 

211

 

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prepaid expenses and other assets

 

 

159

 

 

 

103

 

Accounts payable and accrued expenses

 

 

552

 

 

 

537

 

Operating lease liability

 

 

(43

)

 

 

(38

)

Net cash used in operating activities

 

 

(2,197

)

 

 

(4,023

)

Financing activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proceeds from issuances of common stock, net

 

 

 

 

 

107

 

Proceeds from exercise of warrants, net

 

 

5,191

 

 

 

 

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

 

5,191

 

 

 

107

 

Net change in cash

 

 

2,994

 

 

 

(3,916

)

Cash at beginning of period

 

 

8,791

 

 

 

12,972

 

Cash at end of period

 

$

11,785

 

 

$

9,056

 

 

See accompanying notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

7


NOVUS THERAPEUTICS, INC.

NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

(Unaudited)

Note 1. Description of Business

Novus Therapeutics, Inc. is a specialty pharmaceutical company focused on developing products for patients with disorders of the ear, nose, and throat (“ENT”). Unless otherwise indicated, references to the terms “Novus,” “our,” “us,” “we”, or the “Company” refer to Novus Therapeutics, Inc.

Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Basis of Presentation

The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”) and Article 10 of Regulation S-X requirements as set forth by the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) for interim financial information and reflect all adjustments and disclosures, which are, in the opinion of management, of a normal and recurring nature, and considered necessary for a fair presentation of the financial information contained herein. Pursuant to these rules and regulations, the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements do not include all information and notes necessary for a complete presentation of results of operations and comprehensive loss, financial position, and cash flows in conformity with GAAP.

The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and notes should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements and accompanying notes of Novus for the year ended December 31, 2019 included in the Annual Report on Form 10-K filed by the Company with the SEC on March 16, 2020. The results of operations and comprehensive loss for the three months ended March 31, 2020 are not necessarily indicative of results expected for the full fiscal year or any other future period.

Principles of Consolidation

Novus, a Delaware corporation, owns 100% of the issued and outstanding common stock or other ownership interest in Otic Pharma, Ltd., a private limited company organized under the laws of the State of Israel (“Otic”). Otic owns 100% of the issued and outstanding common stock or other ownership interest in its U.S. subsidiary, Otic Pharma, Inc.

The functional currency of the Company’s foreign subsidiary is the U.S. Dollar; however, certain expenses, assets and liabilities are transacted at the local currency. These transactions are translated from the local currency into U.S. Dollars at exchange rates during or at the end of the reporting period. The activities of the Company’s foreign subsidiary are not significant to the condensed consolidated financial statements.

All significant intercompany accounts and transactions among the entities have been eliminated from the condensed consolidated financial statements.

Liquidity and Financial Condition

The Company has experienced recurring net losses and negative cash flows from operating activities since its inception. The Company recorded a net loss of $8.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020. As of March 31, 2020, the Company had cash of $11.8 million, working capital of $11.0 million and an accumulated deficit of $65.8 million. Due to continuing research and development activities, the Company expects to continue to incur net losses into the foreseeable future. In order to continue these activities, the Company may need to raise additional funds through future public or private debt and equity financings or strategic collaboration and licensing arrangements. The Company’s ability to raise additional capital in the equity and debt markets is dependent on a number of factors, including, but not limited to, the market demand for the Company’s common stock, which itself is subject to a number of development and business risks and uncertainties, as well as the uncertainty that the Company would be able to raise such additional capital at a price or on terms that are favorable to the Company. If the Company issues equity or convertible debt securities to raise additional funding, its existing stockholders may experience dilution, it may incur significant financing costs, and the new equity or convertible debt securities may have rights, preferences and privileges senior to those of its existing stockholders. If the Company issues debt securities to raise additional funding, it would incur additional debt service obligations, it could become subject to additional restrictions limiting its ability to operate its business, and it may be required to further encumber its assets.    

8


Adequate additional funding may not be available to us on acceptable terms on a timely basis, or at all. During fiscal year 2019 and in the first three months of 2020, the Company has implemented, and will continue to implement, certain cost cutting measures to reduce its cash flow requirements. Consistent with the actions the Company has taken in the past, it will execute the appropriate steps to enable the continued operation of the business and preservation of the value of its assets beyond the next twelve months, including but not limited to actions such as reduced personnel-related costs, delay or curtailment of the Company’s research and development activities, and other discretionary expenses that are within the Company’s control.  These initiatives, if required, may have an adverse impact on the Company’s ability to achieve certain of its planned objectives as it seeks strategic alternatives.

On August 8, 2019, the Company received written notice (the “Notification Letter”) from The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC (“Nasdaq”) notifying the Company that it was not in compliance with the minimum bid price requirements set forth in Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(a)(2) for continued listing on The Nasdaq Capital Market. Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(a)(2) requires listed securities maintain a minimum closing bid price of $1.00 per share, and Nasdaq Listing Rule 5810(c)(3)(A) provides that a failure to meet the minimum closing bid price requirement exists if the deficiency continues for a period of 30 consecutive business days. Based on the closing bid price of the Company’s common stock for the 30 consecutive business days prior to the date of the Notification Letter, the Company did not meet the minimum closing bid price requirement.

The Notification Letter stated that the Company had 180 calendar days, or until February 4, 2020, to regain compliance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(a)(2).  

On February 6, 2020, the Company received written notice that Nasdaq determined that it is eligible for an additional 180-day extension (the “Extension Letter”), or until August 3, 2020, to regain compliance with the minimum bid price requirement. The Extension Letter does not impact the Company’s listing on the Nasdaq Capital Market at this time. To regain compliance, the closing bid price of the Company’s common stock must be at least $1.00 per share for a minimum of 10 consecutive business days at any time prior to August 3, 2020.

On April 21, 2020, the Company received an additional notice from Nasdaq (the “Tolling Notice”), which stated that, due to current market conditions, Nasdaq has determined to toll the compliance period for the minimum bid price requirement through June 30, 2020. As a result, the new date by which the Company has to regain compliance with the minimum bid price requirement is October 19, 2020.

The Company intends to monitor the closing bid price of its common stock and consider its available options to resolve its noncompliance with the minimum bid price requirement. There can be no assurance that the Company will be able to regain compliance with the minimum bid price requirement or that the Company will otherwise be in compliance with other Nasdaq listing criteria. If the Company fails to regain compliance with the minimum bid requirement or to meet the other applicable continued listing requirements for the Nasdaq Capital Market in the future and Nasdaq determines to delist its common stock, the delisting could adversely affect the market price and liquidity of the Company’s common stock and reduce its ability to raise additional capital.

If the Company’s common stock is delisted by Nasdaq, the common stock may be eligible to trade on the OTC Bulletin Board or another over-the-counter market. Any such alternative would likely result in it being more difficult for the Company to raise additional capital through the public or private sale of equity securities and for investors to dispose of, or obtain accurate quotations as to the market value of, the common stock and could result in a decrease in the trading price of our common stock. In addition, there can be no assurance that the common stock would be eligible for trading on any such alternative exchange or markets.

At the time of issuance of the condensed consolidated financial statements for the period ended March 31, 2020, the Company concluded that there is substantial doubt regarding the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern for the twelve months from the date of filing of this quarterly report on Form 10-Q. The financial information and the condensed consolidated financial statements included in this filing have been prepared on a basis that assumes that we will continue as a going concern, which contemplates the realization of assets and the satisfaction of liabilities and commitments in the normal course of business. This financial information and these financial statements do not include any adjustments that may result from an unfavorable outcome of this uncertainty. Our ability to continue as a going concern is dependent upon our ability to successfully secure sources of financing and ultimately achieve profitable operations.

9


Use of Estimates

The preparation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make informed estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities and expenses and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities in the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. The most significant estimates in the Company’s consolidated financial statements relate to stock-based transactions, accruals for liabilities, operating lease liability, and other matters that affect the condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates under different assumptions or conditions and the differences may be material to the condensed consolidated financial statements.

Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash represents cash deposits held at financial institutions. The Company considers all liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less and that can be liquidated without prior notice or penalty to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents are held for the purpose of meeting short-term liquidity requirements, rather than for investment purposes. The Company had no cash equivalents at March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019.

Concentration of Credit Risk and Other Risks and Uncertainties

As of March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, all of the Company’s long-lived assets were located in the United States.

Financial instruments that are subject to concentration of credit risk consist primarily of cash equivalents. The Company’s policy is to invest cash in institutional money market funds to limit the amount of credit exposure. At times, the Company maintains cash equivalents in short‑term money market funds and it has not experienced any losses on its cash equivalents.

The Company’s products will require approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) and foreign regulatory agencies before commercial sales can commence. There can be no assurance that the Company’s products will receive any of these required approvals. The denial or delay of such approvals may impact the Company’s business in the future. In addition, after approval by the FDA, there is still an ongoing risk of adverse events that did not appear during the product approval process.

The Company is subject to risks common to companies in the pharmaceutical industry, including, but not limited to, new technological innovations, clinical development risk, establishment of appropriate commercial partnerships, protection of proprietary technology, compliance with government and environmental regulations, uncertainty of market acceptance of products, product liability, the volatility of its stock price and the need to obtain additional financing.

Our facilities and equipment, including those of our suppliers and vendors, may be affected by natural or man-made disasters. Our administrative office is based in Irvine, California and we manage all our research and development activities through third parties that are located throughout the world. We have taken precautions to safeguard our facilities, equipment and systems, including insurance, health and safety protocols, and off-site storage of computer data. However, our facilities and systems, as well as those of our third-party suppliers and vendors, may be vulnerable to earthquakes, fire, storm, health emergencies, including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, power loss, telecommunications failures, physical and software break-ins, software viruses and similar events which could cause substantial delays in our operations, damage or destroy our equipment or inventory, and cause us to incur additional expenses and delay research and development activities. In addition, the insurance coverage we maintain may not be adequate to cover our losses in any circumstance and may not continue to be available to use on acceptable terms, or at all.

Reportable Segments

Operating segments under GAAP are defined as components of an enterprise about which separate financial information is available that is evaluated regularly by the Chief Operating Decision Maker (“CODM”), or decision-making group, in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. The CODM is the Company’s Chief Executive Officer and the Company has determined that it operates in one business segment, which is the development of products for disorders of the ear, nose, and throat.

10


         

Long-Lived Assets

Property and equipment are recorded at cost. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the respective assets. Additions, major renewals and improvements are capitalized, and repair and maintenance costs are charged to expense as incurred. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the remaining life of the initial lease term or the estimated useful lives of the assets, whichever is shorter.

The carrying value of long-lived assets, including operating lease right-of-use assets and intangible assets, is evaluated whenever events or changes in business circumstances or the Company’s planned use of long-lived assets indicate, based on undiscounted future operating cash flows, that their carrying amounts may not be fully recoverable or that their useful lives are no longer appropriate. When an indicator of impairment exists, undiscounted future operating cash flows of long-lived assets are compared to their respective carrying value. If the carrying value is greater than the undiscounted future operating cash flows of long-lived assets, the long-lived assets are written down to their respective fair values and an impairment loss is recorded. Fair value is determined primarily using the discounted cash flows expected to be generated from the use of assets. Significant management judgment is required in the forecast of future operating results that are used in the preparation of expected cash flows. No impairments of tangible assets have been identified during the periods presented.

Research and Development Expenses

Research and development expenses include personnel and facility-related expenses, outside contracted services including clinical trial costs, manufacturing and process development costs, research costs and other consulting services and non-cash stock-based compensation. Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Amounts due under contracts with third parties may be either fixed fee or fee for service, and may include upfront payments, monthly payments and payments upon the completion of milestones or receipt of deliverables. Non-refundable advance payments under agreements are capitalized and expensed as the related goods are delivered or services are performed.

The Company contracts with third parties to perform various clinical trial activities in the on-going development of potential products. The financial terms of these agreements are subject to negotiation, vary from contract to contract and may result in uneven payment flows to its vendors. Payments under the contracts depend on factors such as the achievement of certain events, successful enrollment of patients, and completion of portions of the clinical trial or similar conditions. The Company’s accrual for clinical trials is based on estimates of the services received and efforts expended pursuant to contracts with clinical trial centers and clinical research organizations. These contracts may be terminated by the Company upon written notice and the Company is generally only liable for actual effort expended by the organizations to the date of termination, although in certain instances the Company may be further responsible for termination fees and penalties, as well as reasonable shutdown costs. The Company estimates its research and development expenses and the related accrual as of each balance sheet date based on the facts and circumstances known to the Company at that time. There have been no material adjustments to the Company’s prior‑period accrued estimates for clinical trial activities through March 31, 2020.

11


Net Loss Per Share

Basic net loss per common share is calculated by dividing the net loss attributable to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period, without consideration for potentially dilutive securities. Diluted net loss per share is computed by dividing the net loss attributable to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of common shares and potentially dilutive securities outstanding for the period determined using the treasury-stock and if-converted methods. For purposes of the diluted net loss per share calculation, preferred stock, convertible notes and accrued interest, stock options, warrants and restricted stock units are considered to be potentially dilutive securities and are excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share because their effect would be anti-dilutive. Therefore, basic and diluted net loss per share was the same for the periods presented due to the Company’s net loss position.

 

 

 

For the Three Months

Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

 

(In thousands, except share and per share data)

 

Net loss used in the calculation of basic and diluted

   loss per share

 

$

(8,177

)

 

$

(4,881

)

Net loss per share, basic and diluted

 

$

(0.47

)

 

$

(0.52

)

Weighted-average number of common shares, basic

   and diluted

 

 

17,267,123

 

 

 

9,427,073

 

 

The computation of diluted earnings per share excludes stock options, warrants, and restricted stock units that are anti-dilutive. As of March 31, 2020 and 2019, common share equivalents of 9,515,858 shares and 1,241,717 shares were anti-dilutive, respectively.   

Stock-based Compensation

The Company recognizes compensation expense for all stock-based awards based on the grant-date estimated fair value.

The fair value of stock options is determined using the Black-Scholes option pricing model, using assumptions that are subjective and require significant judgment and estimation by management. The risk-free rate assumption was based on observed yields from governmental zero-coupon bonds with an equivalent term. The expected volatility assumption was based on historical volatilities of a group of comparable industry companies whose share prices are publicly available. The peer group was developed based on companies in the pharmaceutical industry. The expected term of stock options represents the weighted-average period that the stock options are expected to be outstanding. Because the Company does not have historical exercise behavior, it determined the expected life assumption using the simplified method for options granted to employees, which is an average of the options ordinary vesting period and the contractual term for options granted to nonemployees. The expected dividend assumption was based on the Company’s history and expectation of dividend payouts. The Company has not paid and does not expect to pay dividends at any time in the foreseeable future. The Company recognizes forfeitures on an actual basis and as such did not estimate forfeitures to calculate stock-based compensation.

Restricted Stock Units (“RSU”) and Performance-Based Restricted Stock Units (“PRSU”) are measured and recognized based on the quoted market price of our common stock on the date of grant.

The Company’s 2014 Stock Incentive Plan (the “2014 Plan”) and 2014 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (the “ESPP” and, together with the 2014 Plan, the “Plans”) each provide for an annual increase in shares available for grant, beginning with the fiscal year ending December 31, 2019 and continuing for each fiscal year until, and including, the fiscal year ending December 31, 2024.       

In March 2020, the Board of Directors approved an increase of 518,693 shares issuable under the 2014 Plan and 129,673 shares issuable under the ESPP. The number of shares reserved for issuance under the 2014 Plan and ESPP were 401,648 and 433,394 shares, respectively, as of March 31, 2020.

12


Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-13, “Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework — Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement”, an amendment to the accounting guidance on fair value measurements. The guidance modifies the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements, including the removal of disclosures of the amount of and reasons for transfers between Level 1 and Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy, the policy for timing of transfers between levels, and the valuation processes for Level 3 fair value measurements. The guidance also adds certain disclosure requirements related to Level 3 fair value measurements. The guidance is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019. Adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements.

In August 2018, the FASB also issued ASU No. 2018-15, Customer's Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract, an amendment to the accounting guidance on cloud computing service arrangements that changes the accounting for implementation costs incurred in a cloud computing arrangement that is a service contract. The update aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software. The guidance also requires an entity to expense the capitalized implementation costs of a hosting arrangement that is a service contract over the term of the hosting arrangement. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements.

No other new accounting pronouncement issued or effective during the fiscal period had or is expected to have a material impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements or disclosures.

Note 3. Prepaid Expenses and Other Current Assets

Prepaid expenses and other current assets consisted of the following (in thousands):

 

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

Prepaid insurance

 

$

590

 

 

$

734

 

Prepaid clinical

 

 

101

 

 

 

102

 

Prepaid other

 

 

86

 

 

 

45

 

Insurance receivable

 

 

247

 

 

 

245

 

Other current assets

 

 

64

 

 

 

54

 

Total prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

$

1,088

 

 

$

1,180

 

 

Note 4. Accrued Expenses and Other Liabilities

Accrued expenses and other liabilities consisted of the following (in thousands):

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

Accrued compensation and related expenses

 

$

446

 

 

$

40

 

Accrued clinical

 

 

150

 

 

 

437

 

Accrued professional services

 

 

120

 

 

 

130

 

Accrued vacation

 

 

212

 

 

 

199

 

Accrued other

 

 

25

 

 

 

7

 

Total accrued expenses and other liabilities

 

$

953

 

 

$

813

 

 

Note 5. Commitments and Contingencies

Operating Leases

The Company leases office space under a single operating lease. Total rental expense for the operating lease in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss was $47,000 and $49,000 for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.  

13


The Company has an operating lease for 5,197 of office space in Irvine, California, that expires on September 30, 2021, as amended.    

The Company determines if a contract contains a lease at inception. Our office lease has a remaining term of 1.5 years and does not include options to extend the lease for additional periods.

Operating lease assets and liabilities are recognized at the lease commencement date. Operating lease liabilities represent the present value of lease payments not yet paid. Operating lease assets represent our right to use an underlying asset and are based upon the operating lease liabilities as adjusted for prepayments or accrued lease payments, initial direct costs, lease incentives, and impairment of operating lease assets. To determine the present value of lease payments not yet paid, we estimate incremental secured borrowing rates corresponding to the maturities of the leases. As we have no outstanding debt nor committed credit facilities, secured or otherwise, we estimate this rate based on prevailing financial market conditions, comparable company and credit analysis, and management’s judgment.

Our lease contains rent escalations over the lease term. We recognize expense for these leases on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Additionally, tenant incentives used to fund leasehold improvements are recognized when earned and reduce our right-of-use asset related to the lease. These are amortized through the right-of-use asset as reductions of expense over the lease term. Our lease agreement does not contain any material residual value guarantees or material restrictive covenants.

While we do not currently have any lease agreement with lease and non-lease components, we elected to account for lease and non-lease components as separate components.

We have elected the short-term lease recognition exemption for all applicable classes of underlying assets. Short-term disclosures include only those leases with a term greater than one month and 12 months or less, and expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Leases with an initial term of 12 months or less, that do not include an option to purchase the underlying asset that we are reasonably certain to exercise, are not recorded on the balance sheet.

 

The components of lease expense were as follows:

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31, 2020

 

Operating lease cost(a)

 

$

50

 

(a) Includes variable operating lease expenses, which are immaterial

 

 

Other information related to leases was as follows (in thousands, except lease term and discount rate):

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31, 2020

 

Supplemental Cash Flows Information

 

 

 

 

Cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of lease liability:

 

 

 

 

Operating cash flows from operating lease

 

$

47

 

Remaining lease term

 

 

 

 

Operating lease

 

1.5 years

 

Discount rate

 

 

 

 

Operating lease

 

 

3.25

%

 

14


Future payments under noncancelable operating leases having initial or remaining terms of one year or more are as follows for the remaining fiscal year and thereafter (in thousands):

 

Years ending

 

2020 (remainder of)

 

$

142

 

2021

 

 

146

 

Total minimum lease payments

 

 

288

 

Less imputed interest

 

 

(7

)

Present value of lease liabilities

 

 

281

 

Less current portion

 

 

(184

)

 

 

$

97

 

 

Grants and Licenses

Israeli Innovation Authority Grant

From 2012 through 2015, the Company received grants in the amount of approximately $537,000 from the Israeli Innovation Authority (previously the Office of Chief Scientist) of the Israeli Ministry of Economy and Industry designated for investments in research and development. The grants are linked to the U.S. Dollar and bear annual interest of LIBOR. The grants are to be repaid out of royalties from sales of the products developed by the Company from its investments in research and development. Because the Company has not yet earned revenues related to these investments and cannot estimate potential royalties, no liabilities related to these grants have been recorded as of each period presented. Repayment of the grant is contingent upon the successful completion of the Company’s research and development programs and generating sales. The Company has no obligation to repay these grants, if the research and development program fails, is unsuccessful or aborted or if no sales are generated. The Company has not yet generated sales as of March 31, 2020; therefore, no liability was recorded for the repayment in the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements.

Otodyne License Agreement

In November 2015, the Company entered into an exclusive license agreement with Scientific Development and Research, Inc. and Otodyne, Inc. (collectively, the “Licensors”) granting the Company exclusive worldwide rights to develop and commercialize OP0201, a potential first-in-class treatment option for patients at risk for or with otitis media (middle ear inflammation with or without infection), which is often caused by Eustachian tube dysfunction (“ETD”). Under the terms of the agreement, the Company is obligated to use commercially reasonable efforts to seek approval for and commercialize at least one product for otitis media in the U.S. and key European markets (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom). The Company is responsible for prosecuting, maintaining, and enforcing all related intellectual property and will be the sole owner of improvements. Under the agreement with the Licensors, the Company paid license fees totaling $750,000 and issued 9,780 common shares to the Licensors, which was expensed to research and development during the year ended December 31, 2015.

In December 2015, the Licensors completed transfer of all technology, including the active Investigational New Drug application for OP0201 to the Company. The Company is obligated to pay up to $42.1 million in development and regulatory milestones if OP0201 is approved for three indications in the United States, two in Europe, and two in Japan. The Company is also obligated to pay up to $36.0 million in sales-based milestones, beginning with sales exceeding $1.0 billion in a calendar year. The Company is also obligated to pay a tiered royalty for a period up to eight years, on a country-by-country basis. The royalty ranges from a low-single to mid-single percentage of net sales. The Company made a $300,000 milestone payment in March 2019 related to the first patient enrolled in a phase 2 study. There were no other milestones achieved during the three months ended March 31, 2020.

15


Legal Matters

The Company is involved in various lawsuits and claims arising in the ordinary course of business, including actions with respect to intellectual property, employment, and contractual matters. In connection with these matters, the Company assesses, on a regular basis, the probability and range of possible loss based on the developments in these matters. A liability is recorded in the financial statements if it is believed to be probable that a loss has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. Because litigation is inherently unpredictable and unfavorable results could occur, assessing contingencies is highly subjective and requires judgments about future events. The Company regularly reviews outstanding legal matters to determine the adequacy of the liabilities accrued and related disclosures. The amount of ultimate loss may differ from these estimates. Each matter presents its own unique circumstances, and prior litigation does not necessarily provide a reliable basis on which to predict the outcome, or range of outcomes, in any individual proceeding. Because of the uncertainties related to the occurrence, amount, and range of loss on any pending litigation or claim, the Company does not consider a liability probable and is currently unable to predict their ultimate outcome, and, with respect to any pending litigation or claim where no liability has been accrued, to make a meaningful estimate of the reasonably possible loss or range of loss that could result from an unfavorable outcome. In the event that opposing litigants in outstanding litigation proceedings or claims ultimately succeed at trial and any subsequent appeals on their claims, any potential loss or charges in excess of any established accruals, individually or in the aggregate, could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition, results of operations, and/or cash flows in the period in which the unfavorable outcome occurs or becomes probable, and potentially in future periods.

Legal Proceedings

On September 22, 2014, Tokai, the legal predecessor of the Company, completed the initial public offering of its common stock (the “IPO”). On July 25, 2017, a purported stockholder of Tokai filed a lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts, entitled Peter B. Angelos v. Tokai Pharmaceuticals, Inc., et al., No. 1:17-cv-11365-MLW. The lawsuit was filed against Tokai, Jodie P. Morrison, Lee H. Kalowski, Seth L. Harrison, Timothy J. Barberich, David A. Kessler, Joseph A. Yanchik, III, and the underwriters of the IPO. The lawsuit alleges that Tokai made false and misleading statements and omissions about its clinical trials for galeterone, in violation of the Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. The lawsuit seeks, among other things, unspecified compensatory damages, interest, costs, and attorneys’ fees.

On September 7, 2018, plaintiff filed an amended complaint. Defendants moved to dismiss the amended complaint on October 15, 2018. Plaintiff opposed defendants’ motion on November 19, 2018, defendants filed a reply in support of their motion on December 17, 2018, and plaintiff filed a sur-reply in support of his opposition on January 8, 2019. On February 18, 2020, the court held a hearing on defendants’ motion to dismiss. The court also ordered the parties to confer and notify it by March 10, 2020, if they reached an agreement to settle the case. On March 10, 2020, pursuant to the court’s order, the parties advised the court they did not agree on a settlement.

The Company intends to vigorously defend against these claims. Given the uncertainty of litigation, the preliminary stage of this case, and the legal standards that must be met for, among other things, success on the merits, the Company is unable to predict the ultimate outcome of this action, and therefore it cannot estimate the reasonably possible loss or range of loss that may result from this action.

Indemnification

In the normal course of business, the Company enters into contracts and agreements that contain a variety of representations and warranties and provide for general indemnification. The Company’s exposure under these agreements is unknown because it involves future claims that may be made against the Company but have not yet been made. To date, the Company has not paid any claims or been required to defend any action related to its indemnification obligations. However, the Company may record charges in the future because of these indemnification obligations. No amounts associated with such indemnifications have been recorded to date.

Contingencies

From time to time, the Company may have certain contingent liabilities that arise in the ordinary course of business activities. The Company accrues a liability for such matters when it is probable that future expenditures will be made, and such expenditures can be reasonably estimated. There have been no contingent liabilities requiring accrual at March 31, 2020.

16


 

Note 6. Stockholders’ Equity

Equity Distribution Agreement

On July 23, 2018, the Company filed a prospectus and prospectus supplement (the “2018 Prospectus”) under which the Company may offer and sell, from time to time, pursuant to an equity distribution agreement with Piper Jaffray & Co., up to $9.8 million in shares of its common stock. As of December 31, 2019 and March 31, 2020, 25,218 shares have been sold under the 2018 Prospectus for gross proceeds of approximately $110,000. As of March 31, 2020, $8.7 million of the $9.8 million in shares of common stock remains available to be offered and sold under the 2018 Prospectus.

2019 Equity Offering

On April 30, 2019, the Company entered into a securities purchase agreement with certain investors pursuant to which the Company agreed to sell, in a registered direct offering, an aggregate 3,449,112 shares of its common stock for gross proceeds of approximately $10.7 million under its effective shelf registration statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-226286), which became effective on July 31, 2018.  In a concurrent private placement, the Company also agreed, pursuant to the securities purchase agreement, to issue to such investors Series A warrants to purchase up to 3,449,112 shares of its common stock at an exercise price of $4.00 with a term of eighteen months (the “Series A Warrants”) and Series B warrants to purchase up 3,449,112 shares of its common stock at an exercise price of $4.00 with a term of five years (the “Series B Warrants”). The Series B Warrants become exercisable only upon the exercise of the Series A Warrants. In addition, the Company agreed to issue to the placement agent warrants to purchase up to 172,456 shares of common stock representing 5.0% of the aggregate number of shares of common stock sold in this offering. The placement agent warrants have substantially the same terms as the Series A Warrants issued to the investors in the concurrent private placement, except that the placement agent warrants have an exercise price equal to $3.87 or 125% of the offering price per share and will expire on April 30, 2024. The registered direct offering and the concurrent private placement are referred to collectively herein as the “2019 Equity Offering.”

All the warrants issued in connection with the 2019 Equity Offering contained put options that allow the holders of the warrants the right to receive, for each warrant share that would have been issuable upon an exercise immediately prior to the occurrence of an effective change in control event defined as a fundamental transaction, the number of shares of common stock of the successor or acquiring corporation or of the Company, if it is the surviving corporation, and any additional consideration receivable as a result of such fundamental transaction by a holder of the number of shares of common stock for which this warrant is exercisable immediately prior to such fundamental transaction.  The Company evaluated the embedded put option contained in the warrants under the guidance of Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 815, Derivatives and Hedging, and concluded that the requirements for contingent exercise provisions as well as the settlement provision for scope exception in ASC 815-10-15-74 has been met.  Accordingly, the put options contained in the warrants were not bi-furcated and accounted for as freestanding derivative instruments.

Warrant Exercise Transaction

On January 10, 2020 and January 15, 2020, the Company entered into warrant exercise agreements (the “Exercise Agreements”) with the holders (the “Holders”) of its Series A Warrants and Series B Warrants (collectively, the “Warrants”), issued in the 2019 Equity Offering, pursuant to which the Holders agreed to exercise in cash their Warrants to purchase an aggregate of 6,898,224 shares of the Company’s common stock at a reduced exercise price of $0.715 per share, plus an additional $0.125 per share for the issuance of the private placement warrants for gross proceeds (before placement agent fees and expenses) to the Company of approximately $5.8 million (the “Exercise Transaction”).

Under the Exercise Agreements, the Company also agreed to issue to the Holders new warrants to purchase up to 6,898,224 shares of the Company’s common stock at an exercise price of $0.72 per share, with an exercise period of five and a half years (the “Private Placement Warrants”). The Private Placement Warrants transaction subsequently closed and the Private Placement Warrants were issued on January 14, 2020 with respect to the Warrants exercised on January 10, 2020 and on or about January 17, 2020, with respect to the Warrants exercised on January 15, 2020. In addition, the Company agreed to issue to the placement agent warrants to purchase up to 344,911 shares of common stock, representing 5.0% of the aggregate number of shares of common stock issued in the Exercise Transaction. The placement agent warrants have substantially the same terms as the Private Placement Warrants issued to the Holders, except that the placement agent warrants have an exercise price equal to $1.05. A warrant inducement expense of $4.8 million was recorded which was determined using the Black-Scholes option pricing model and was calculated as the difference between the fair value of the Warrants prior to, and immediately after, the reduction in the exercise price on the date of repricing in addition to the fair value of the Private Placement Warrants issued.

17


As of March 31, 2020, a total of 7,415,591 warrants were available for exercise. The shares of common stock underlying the registered direct placement agent warrants are registered for offer and sale under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), pursuant to the Company’s effective registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-232011). The shares of common stock underlying the Private Placement Warrants and related placement agent warrants are registered for offer and sale under the Securities Act pursuant to the Company’s effective registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-237379).

The following table shows the warrant activity:

 

 

 

Rollforward of Warrant Activity

 

 

 

Registered direct

warrants, Series A

 

 

Registered direct

warrants, Series B

 

 

Registered direct

warrants, placement agent

 

 

Private placement warrants

 

 

Private placement warrants, placement agent

 

 

Total

 

Balance as of December 31, 2019

 

 

3,449,112

 

 

 

3,449,112

 

 

 

172,456

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7,070,680

 

Issued

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6,898,224

 

 

 

344,911

 

 

 

7,243,135

 

Exercised

 

 

(3,449,112

)

 

 

(3,449,112

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(6,898,224

)

Cancelled/Expired

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Balance as of March 31, 2020

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

172,456

 

 

 

6,898,224

 

 

 

344,911

 

 

 

7,415,591

 

 

Common Stock Exchange Agreement

On February 13, 2020, the Company entered into an exchange agreement (the “Exchange Agreement”) with Biotechnology Value Fund, L.P., Biotechnology Value Fund II, L.P. and Biotechnology Value Trading Fund OS, L.P. (the “Exchanging Stockholders”), pursuant to which the Exchanging Stockholders exchanged (the “Exchange”) 3,796,000 shares of the Company’s common stock for 3,796 shares of newly designated Series X Convertible Preferred Stock (the “Series X Preferred Stock”). The Company agreed to reimburse the Exchanging Stockholders for their expenses in connection with the Exchange up to a total of $25,000, which was recorded as operating expense in the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. The Exchange was completed on February 19, 2020.

On February 13, 2020, in connection with the Exchange, the Company filed a Certificate of Designation setting forth the preferences, rights and limitations of the Series X Preferred Stock with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware. The number of shares so designated shall be 10,000 and Series X Preferred Stock shall have a par value of $0.001 per share. Each share of Series X Preferred Stock will be convertible into 1,000 shares of common stock at the option of the holder at any time; subject to certain limitations, including, that the holder will be prohibited from converting Series X Preferred Stock into common stock if, as a result of such conversion, the holder, together with its affiliates, would beneficially own a number of shares of common stock above a conversion blocker, which is initially set at 9.99% of the total common stock then issued and outstanding immediately following the conversion of such shares of Series X Preferred Stock. In the event of the Company’s liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of Series X Preferred Stock will participate pari passu with any distribution of proceeds to holders of common stock. Holders of Series X Preferred Stock are entitled to receive dividends on shares of Series X Preferred Stock equal (on an as-if-converted-to-common stock basis) to and in the same form as dividends actually paid on the common stock or other junior securities of the Company. Shares of Series X Preferred Stock will generally have no voting rights, except as required by law and except that the consent of a majority of the holders of the outstanding Series X Preferred Stock will be required to amend the terms of the Series X Preferred Stock.

SEC Accounting Series Release No. 268, Presentation in Financial Statements of “Redeemable Preferred Stocks” (“ASR 268”) requires equity instruments with redemption features that are not solely within the control of the issuer to be classified outside of permanent equity, often referred to as classification in “temporary equity”).The Company evaluated Series X Preferred Stock redemption features and concluded that there are no redemption features with the Series X Preferred Stock that are not solely within the control of the Company and permanent equity classification was appropriate.

Series X Preferred Stock has two (2) separate and distinct embedded features. They are: (1) optional conversion by holder and (2) redemption put feature upon fundamental transaction.

Each share of Series X Preferred Stock shall be convertible into 1,000 shares of common stock, at the option of the holder, at any time after the date of issuance.  The Company evaluated the embedded optional conversion feature in accordance with the guidance under ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging, and determined it is exempt from derivative accounting as the embedded feature is deemed to be indexed to the Company’s own stock and classified in stockholder’s equity if freestanding. Further, because the conversion ratio is fixed and equal to the ratio of the original exchange of 1,000

18


common stock to each share of Series X Preferred Stock, the Company concluded that there is no intrinsic value to the beneficial conversion feature.  

Each share of Series X Preferred Stock contains redemption put features that allow the holders of the Series X Preferred Stock the right to receive, in lieu of the right to receive conversion shares, for each conversion share that would have been issuable upon such conversion immediately prior to the occurrence of an effective change in control (“Fundamental Transaction”), the same kind and amount of securities, cash or property as it would have been entitled to receive upon the occurrence of such Fundamental Transaction if it had been, immediately prior to such Fundamental Transaction, the holder of one share of common stock.  The Company evaluated the redemption put feature contained in each Series X Preferred Stock under the guidance of ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging, and concluded that the embedded redemption put feature do not meet the definition of a derivative, if freestanding, under ASC 815 as net settlement could not be achieved.  Accordingly, the redemption put features contained in the Series X Preferred Stock were not bi-furcated and accounted for as freestanding derivative instruments.

Stock-Based Compensation

Total stock-based compensation expense was recognized in our condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss as follows (in thousands):

 

 

 

For the Three Months

Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

Research and development

 

$

154

 

 

$

35

 

General and administrative

 

 

283

 

 

 

176

 

Total stock-based compensation

 

$

437

 

 

$

211

 

 

During the three months ended March 31, 2020, PRSUs awarded to employees totaling 55,000 shares vested and resulted in the recognition of $204,765 in stock-based compensation expense.

19


Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

The unaudited interim financial statements and this Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations should be read together with our audited financial statements and accompanying notes for the year ended December 31, 2019 included in the Annual Report on Form 10-K filed by the Company with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) on March 16, 2020, as amended. In addition to historical information, this discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Please see Part II, Item 1A. Risk Factors for a discussion of certain risk factors applicable to our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Operating results are not necessarily indicative of results that may occur for the full fiscal year or any other future period. Unless otherwise indicated, references to the terms “Novus”, the “Company”, “we”, “our”, and “us” refer to Novus Therapeutics, Inc. References to the term “Tokai” refer to Tokai Pharmaceuticals, Inc., the legal predecessor of the Company.

ABOUT NOVUS THERAPEUTICS

Overview

Novus Therapeutics, Inc. is a specialty pharmaceutical company focused on developing products for patients with disorders of the ear, nose, and throat. The Company has two platform technologies, a surfactant and a foam, each with the potential to be developed for multiple indications. Novus’ lead program, OP0201, is a surfactant-based nasal aerosol drug-device combination product candidate being developed as a potential first-in-class treatment option for patients at risk for, or with, otitis media (“OM”). OM is defined as middle ear inflammation and effusion with or without infection. Globally, OM affects more than 700 million adults and children every year, with over half of the cases occurring in children under five years of age. OM is one of the most common disorders seen in pediatric practice, and is a leading cause of health care visits and the most frequent reason children are prescribed antibiotics or undergo surgery in the U.S. Novus also has a foam-based drug delivery technology platform, which may be developed in the future to deliver drugs into the ear, nasal, and sinus cavities.

Surfactant Platform

The first product candidate in the surfactant platform program, OP0201, is being developed as a potential first-in-class treatment option for OM. OM is often caused by Eustachian tube dysfunction (“ETD”). OP0201 is a nasal aerosol, drug-device combination product comprised of a novel formulation of a surfactant (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (“DPPC”)) and a spreading agent (cholesteryl palmitate (“CP”)) suspended in propellant. The product is administered intranasally via a pressurized metered-dose inhaler (“pMDI”). OP0201 is intended to be used to restore the normal physiologic activity of the Eustachian tube (“ET”), which is a small tube that connects from the chamber of the middle ear to the back of the nasopharynx. Together, the active ingredients in OP0201 effectively absorb to the air-liquid interface of the mucosa and reduce the interfacial surface tension of the ET, which reduces passive pressure required for the ET to open. In other words, OP0201 promotes ‘de-sticking’ of the ET so that ventilation of the middle ear is restored. Novus is also exploring the use of a dry-powder unit dose device as an alternative option for intranasal administration of DPPC and CP.

Novus has completed three phase 1 placebo-controlled clinical trials in adults that were designed to evaluate safety and tolerability of single and repeated intranasal doses of OP0201. Results of a single-dose phase 1 trial in healthy adults (study C-001), a single-dose phase 1 trial in adults with acute otitis media (study C-004), and a 14-day phase 1 trial in healthy adults (study C-002) demonstrated the safety and tolerability of OP0201 nasal aerosol. Novus is currently conducting an exploratory phase 2a clinical trial of OP0201 nasal aerosol in infants and children with acute otitis media (study C-006).

Novus’ surfactant program, if successful, will lead to registration of a surfactant-based product in North America and key European markets to treat and/or prevent OM in infants and children. Additional development activities to support registration in other countries, or for other indications, or other patient populations, may occur in the future.

Foam Platform

Novus has two product candidates developed, OP0101 and OP0102, which are foam-based product candidates intended to be used as a delivery vehicle for drugs to be administered into the ear canals, as well as the nasal and sinus cavities. OP0101 foam otic was the initial product candidate utilizing the foam platform. It was developed as an improved treatment option for acute otitis externa (“AOE”), a common infectious medical condition of the outer ear canal that affects tens of millions of adults and children each year (frequently called “swimmer’s ear”). Novus completed four clinical trials of OP0101 foam otic in 353 adult and pediatric subjects, including a successful phase 2b study with a steroid-free, antibiotic-only formulation of OP0101 foam otic that was non-inferior to standard of care, but with a more favorable dosing regimen (once a day dosing instead of twice a day).

20


OP0102 foam otic is a second-generation formulation designed to rapidly relieve ear pain (an unmet need in AOE) and eradicate infection with less than seven days of treatment. In May 2017, Novus suspended the foam otic platform development program to focus resources on the surfactant program.

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

Equity Distribution Agreement

On July 23, 2018, the Company filed a prospectus supplement (the “2018 Prospectus”) under which the Company may offer and sell, from time to time, through Piper Jaffray, up to $9.8 million in shares of its common stock. Piper Jaffray has sold 25,218 shares of the Company’s common stock under the 2018 Prospectus. As of December 31, 2019 and March 31, 2020, $8.7 million of the $9.8 million in shares of common stock remains available to be offered and sold under the 2018 Prospectus.

2019 Equity Offering

On April 30, 2019, the Company agreed to sell in a registered direct offering, an aggregate 3,449,112 shares of its common stock to certain investors for gross proceeds of approximately $10.7 million under its effective shelf registration statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-226286).  In a concurrent private placement, the Company also agreed to issue to such investors Series A warrants to purchase up to 3,449,112 shares of its common stock at an exercise price of $4.00 with a term of eighteen months (the “Series A Warrants”) and Series B warrants to purchase up 3,449,112 shares of its common stock at an exercise price of $4.00 with a term of five years (the “Series B Warrants”). The Series B Warrants become exercisable only upon the exercise of the Series A Warrants. In addition, the Company agreed to issue to H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC, the placement agent for the transaction, warrants to purchase up to 172,456 shares of common stock. The placement agent warrants have substantially the same terms as the Series A Warrants, except that the placement agent warrants have an exercise price equal to $3.86875 and will expire on April 20, 2014. We refer to the registered direct offering and the concurrent private placement collectively as the “2019 Equity Offering.”

Warrant Exercise Transaction

On January 10, 2020 and January 15, 2020, the Company entered into warrant exercise agreements (the “Exercise Agreements”) with the holders (the “Holders”) of its Series A Warrants and Series B Warrants (collectively, the “Warrants”), issued in the 2019 Equity Offering, pursuant to which the Holders agreed to exercise in cash their Warrants to purchase an aggregate of 6,898,224 shares of the Company’s common stock at a reduced exercise price of $0.715 per share, plus an additional $0.125 per share for the issuance of the private placement warrants for gross proceeds (before placement agent fees and expenses) to the Company of approximately $5.8 million (the “Exercise Transaction”).

Under the Exercise Agreements, the Company also agreed to issue to the Holders new warrants to purchase up to 6,898,224 shares of the Company’s common stock at an exercise price of $0.72 per share, with an exercise period of five and a half years (the “Private Placement Warrants”). The Private Placement Warrants transaction subsequently closed and the Private Placement Warrants were issued on January 14, 2020 with respect to the Warrants exercised on January 10, 2020 and on or about January 17, 2020, with respect to the Warrants exercised on January 15, 2020. In addition, the Company agreed to issue to the placement agent warrants to purchase up to 344,911 shares of common stock, representing 5.0% of the aggregate number of shares of common stock issued in the Exercise Transaction. The placement agent warrants have substantially the same terms as the Private Placement Warrants issued to the Holders, except that the placement agent warrants have an exercise price equal to $1.05. A warrant inducement expense of $4.8 million was incurred which was determined using the Black-Scholes option pricing model and was calculated as the difference between the fair value of the Warrants prior to, and immediately after, the reduction in the exercise price on the date of repricing in addition to the fair value of the Private Placement Warrants issued.

Common Stock Exchange Agreement

On February 13, 2020, the Company entered into an exchange agreement (the “Exchange Agreement”) with Biotechnology Value Fund, L.P., Biotechnology Value Fund II, L.P. and Biotechnology Value Trading Fund OS, L.P. (the “Exchanging Stockholders”), pursuant to which the Exchanging Stockholders exchanged (the “Exchange”) 3,796,000 shares of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share, for 3,796 shares of newly designated Series X Convertible Preferred Stock (the “Series X Preferred Stock”). The Company agreed to reimburse the Exchanging Stockholders for their expenses in connection with the Exchange up to a total of $25,000, which was recorded as operating expense in the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. The Exchange was completed on February 19, 2020.

21


On February 13, 2020, in connection with the Exchange, the Company filed a Certificate of Designation setting forth the preferences, rights and limitations of the Series X Preferred Stock with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware. Each share of Series X Preferred Stock will be convertible into 1,000 shares of common stock at the option of the holder at any time; subject to certain limitations, including, that the holder will be prohibited from converting Series X Preferred Stock into common stock if, as a result of such conversion, the holder, together with its affiliates, would beneficially own a number of shares of common stock above a conversion blocker, which is initially set at 9.99% of the total common stock then issued and outstanding immediately following the conversion of such shares of Series X Preferred Stock. In the event of the Company’s liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of Series X Preferred Stock will participate pari passu with any distribution of proceeds to holders of common stock. Holders of Series X Preferred Stock are entitled to receive dividends on shares of Series X Preferred Stock equal (on an as-if-converted-to-common stock basis) to and in the same form as dividends actually paid on the common stock or other junior securities of the Company. Shares of Series X Preferred Stock will generally have no voting rights, except as required by law and except that the consent of a majority of the holders of the outstanding Series X Preferred Stock will be required to amend the terms of the Series X Preferred Stock.

COVID-19 Impact

The COVID-19 pandemic and resulting global disruptions have adversely affected our business and operations, including, but not limited to, our formulation and device development activities, and the operations of third parties upon whom we rely. As noted above, additional development of OP0201 and/or the dry-powder unit dose device product candidate will be required prior to initiation of future clinical trials. The full cost and timing of this additional development is uncertain. As a result of disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, our timeline for completing formulation development and selecting a product candidate has been delayed an indeterminate amount of time.

The COVID-19 pandemic has not materially affected our ongoing trial, OP0201-C-006. However, if COVID-19 continues to spread in the United States and elsewhere, it is reasonably likely that we may experience additional disruptions that could severely impact our business and development activities.  To the extent that the pandemic continues for an extended period of time without a widely available vaccine, our ability to conduct future clinical trials may be adversely affected, as patients may elect to forego treatment for uncomplicated middle-ear infections.

The COVID-19 pandemic and resulting global disruptions have caused significant volatility in financial and credit markets. We have utilized a range of financing methods to fund our operations in the past; however, current conditions in the financial and credit markets may limit the availability of funding or increase the cost of funding. Due to the rapidly evolving nature of the global situation, it is not possible to predict the extent to which these conditions could adversely affect our liquidity and capital resources in the future.

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND SIGNIFICANT JUDGMENTS AND ESTIMATES

Our management’s discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based on our financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”). The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amount of assets, liabilities, and expenses and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates and judgments. We base our estimates on historical experience, known trends and events, and various other factors that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ materially from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. There have been no significant and material changes in our critical accounting policies and significant judgments and estimates during the three months ended March 31, 2020, as compared to those disclosed in the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 filed by the Company with the SEC on March 16, 2020.

22


RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Comparison of the Three Months Ended March 31, 2020 and 2019

The following table provides comparative unaudited results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 (in thousands):

 

 

 

For the Three Months

Ended March 31,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

$ Variance

 

 

% Variance

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

$

1,648

 

 

$

2,989

 

 

 

(1,341

)

 

 

(45

)%

General and administrative

 

 

1,730

 

 

 

1,886

 

 

 

(156

)

 

 

(8

)%

Total operating expenses

 

 

3,378

 

 

 

4,875

 

 

 

(1,497

)

 

 

(31

)%

Loss from operations

 

 

(3,378

)

 

 

(4,875

)

 

 

1,497

 

 

 

(31

)%

Other income (expense), net

 

 

30

 

 

 

(6

)

 

 

36

 

 

 

(600

)%

Warrant inducement expense

 

 

(4,829

)

 

 

 

 

 

(4,829

)

 

 

100

%

Net loss

 

$

(8,177

)

 

$

(4,881

)

 

 

(3,296

)

 

 

68

%

 

Research and Development Expenses

The decrease in research and development expenses of $1,341,000 for the three month period was primarily due to decreases in clinical costs and formulation development costs for OP0201 of $806,000 and $706,000, respectively, as well as a decrease in travel and meetings expense of $46,000. Additionally, miscellaneous operating costs decreased $3,000. The decreases were offset by increases in personnel costs of $17,000, consulting services of $85,000, and stock-based compensation costs of $118,000.

General and Administrative Expenses

The decrease in general and administrative expenses of $156,000 for the three month period was primarily due to decreases in litigation costs of $107,000, costs associated with operating a publicly traded company of $257,000, general operating costs of $20,000, and travel and meeting expense of $15,000. The decreases were offset by an increase in personnel costs of $136,000 and stock-based compensation costs of $107,000.

Other Income (Expense), Net

The change in other income (expense), net was due to an increase in interest income of $30,000 and a decrease in realized losses on foreign currency translation of $6,000 for the three months ended March 31, 2020.

Warrant Inducement Expense

The Company recognized warrant inducement expense of $4.8 million as a result of the Warrant Exercise Transaction in addition to the fair value of the Private Placement Warrants issued. (See Note 6 to the condensed consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this filing).

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

As of March 31, 2020, we had cash of $11.8 million, consisting of readily available cash in bank accounts. While we believe our cash is not subject to excessive risk, we maintain significant amounts of cash at one or more financial institutions that are in excess of federally insured limits. To date, our operations have been financed primarily by net proceeds from the sale of preferred and common stock, the sale of warrants, the issuance of convertible promissory notes, and cash received in a 2017 reverse merger with Tokai. We have concluded and disclosed in the footnotes to our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements, included elsewhere within this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, that we do not have sufficient cash to fund our operations through 12 months from the date of filing of this quarterly report on Form 10-Q.

23


We do not have any approved products for commercial sale and have never generated revenue from product sales, and have incurred significant net losses since our inception and expect to continue to incur net operating losses for the foreseeable future. We do not expect to receive any revenue from any product candidates that we develop unless and until we obtain regulatory approval and commercialize our product candidates or enter into collaborative arrangements with third parties. Our primary use of cash is to fund operating expenses, which consist of research and development expenses and general and administrative expenses. Cash used to fund operating expenses is impacted by the timing of when we pay or prepay these expenses. We expect our expenses to increase in connection with our ongoing activities, particularly as we continue the research and development of, and seek marketing approval for, our product candidates. In addition, if we obtain marketing approval for any of our product candidates, we expect to incur significant commercialization expenses related to product sales, marketing, manufacturing and distribution.

We will continue to require additional financing in order to advance our surfactant program through clinical development, to manufacture, obtain regulatory approval for and to commercialize our product candidates, to develop, acquire or in-license other potential product candidates, and to fund operations for the foreseeable future. Therefore, we will seek to raise additional capital through equity offerings, debt financings or other capital sources, including potentially collaborations, licenses and other similar arrangements. Adequate additional funding may not be available to us on acceptable terms on a timely basis, or at all. Any such failure to raise capital as and when needed could have a negative impact on our financial condition and on our ability to pursue our business plans and strategies, and may cause us to delay the scope of or suspend one or more of our clinical trials, research and development programs or commercialization efforts, out-license intellectual property rights to our product candidates or sell unsecured assets, or a combination of the above. Any of these actions could materially harm our business. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, our stockholders’ ownership interests will be diluted, and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect our stockholders’ rights. Debt financing, if available, would result in fixed payment obligations and may involve agreements that include restrictive covenants that limit our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends, that could adversely impact our ability to conduct our business. If we raise funds through collaborations, licenses and other similar arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, future revenue streams, research programs or product candidates or to grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us. Please see Part II, Item 1A. Risk Factors for additional risks associated with our substantial capital requirements and the challenges we may face in raising capital.

We plan to continue to fund losses from operations and capital funding needs through cash on hand and future equity or debt financings, as well as potential additional collaborations or strategic partnerships with other companies. During the third quarter of 2017, we entered into the Equity Distribution Agreement pursuant to which we may sell shares of common stock from time to time in “at-the-market” offerings and filed a related prospectus supplement (the “2017 Prospectus”). On July 23, 2018, the Company filed the 2018 Prospectus. Under the 2017 Prospectus, we sold shares of common stock from October 2, 2017 through March 9, 2018 for gross proceeds of approximately $8.5 million.  Under the 2018 Prospectus, we may offer and sell up to an additional $9.8 million in shares of common stock. 25,218 shares have been sold under the 2018 Prospectus for gross proceeds of approximately $110,000 as of March 31, 2020. The sale of additional equity or convertible debt could result in additional dilution to our stockholders. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in debt service obligations and could result in operating and financing covenants that would restrict our operations.

On April 30, 2019, the Company entered into a securities purchase agreement with certain investors pursuant to which the Company agreed to sell, in a registered direct offering, an aggregate 3,449,112 shares of its common stock for gross proceeds of approximately $10.7 million under its effective shelf registration statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-226286), which became effective on July 31, 2018.  In a concurrent private placement, the Company also agreed pursuant to the securities purchase agreement to issue to such investors Series A warrants to purchase up to 3,449,112 shares of its common stock at an exercise price of $4.00 with a term of eighteen months (the “Series A Warrants”) and Series B warrants to purchase up 3,449,112 shares of its common stock at an exercise price of $4.00 with a term of five years (the “Series B Warrants”). The Series B Warrants become exercisable only upon the exercise of the Series A Warrants. In addition, the Company agreed to issue to the placement agent warrants to purchase up to 172,456 shares of common stock representing 5.0% of the aggregate number of shares of common stock sold in this offering. The placement agent warrants have substantially the same terms as the Series A Warrants issued to the investors in the concurrent private placement, except that the placement agent warrants have an exercise price equal to $3.87, or 125% of the offering price, per share and will expire on April 30, 2024. We refer to the registered direct offering and the concurrent private placement collectively as the “2019 Equity Offering.”

24


On January 10, 2020 and January 15, 2020, the Company entered into warrant exercise agreements (the “Exercise Agreements”) with the holders (the “Holders”) of its Series A Warrants and Series B Warrants (collectively, the “Warrants”), issued in the 2019 Equity Offering, pursuant to which the Holders agreed to exercise in cash their Warrants to purchase an aggregate of 6,898,224 shares of the Company’s common stock at a reduced exercise price of $0.715 per share, plus an additional $0.125 per share for the issuance of the private placement warrants for gross proceeds (before placement agent fees and expenses) to the Company of approximately $5.8 million (the “Exercise Transaction”).

Under the Exercise Agreements, the Company also agreed to issue to the Holders new warrants to purchase up to 6,898,224 shares of the Company’s common stock at an exercise price of $0.72 per share, with an exercise period of five and a half years (the “Private Placement Warrants”). The Private Placement Warrants transaction subsequently closed and the Private Placement Warrants were issued on January 14, 2020 with respect to the Warrants exercised on January 10, 2020 and on or about January 17, 2020, with respect to the Warrants exercised on January 15, 2020. In addition, the Company agreed to issue to the placement agent warrants to purchase up to 344,911 shares of common stock, representing 5.0% of the aggregate number of shares of common stock issued in the Exercise Transaction. The placement agent warrants have substantially the same terms as the Private Placement Warrants issued to the Holders, except that the placement agent warrants have an exercise price equal to $1.05.

Our primary uses of capital are, and we expect will continue to be, funding research efforts and the development of our product candidates, compensation and related expenses, hiring additional staff (including clinical, scientific, operational, financial, and management personnel) and costs associated with operating as a public company. We expect to incur substantial expenditures in the foreseeable future for the development and potential commercialization of our product candidates.

On August 8, 2019, the Company received written notice (the “Notification Letter”) from The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC (“Nasdaq”) notifying the Company that it was not in compliance with the minimum bid price requirements set forth in Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(a)(2) for continued listing on The Nasdaq Capital Market. Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(a)(2) requires listed securities maintain a minimum closing bid price of $1.00 per share, and Nasdaq Listing Rule 5810(c)(3)(A) provides that a failure to meet the minimum closing bid price requirement exists if the deficiency continues for a period of 30 consecutive business days. Based on the closing bid price of the Company’s common stock for the 30 consecutive business days prior to the date of the Notification Letter, the Company did not meet the minimum closing bid price requirement. The Notification Letter stated that the Company had 180 calendar days, or until February 4, 2020, to regain compliance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(a)(2).

On February 6, 2020, the Company received written notice that Nasdaq determined that it is eligible for an additional 180-day extension (the “Extension Letter”), or until August 3, 2020, to regain compliance with the minimum bid price requirement. The Extension Letter does not impact the Company’s listing on the Nasdaq Capital Market at this time. To regain compliance, the closing bid price of the Company’s common stock must be at least $1.00 per share for a minimum of 10 consecutive business days at any time prior to August 3, 2020.

On April 21, 2020, the Company received an additional notice from Nasdaq (the “Tolling Notice”), which stated that, due to current market conditions, Nasdaq has determined to toll the compliance period for the minimum bid price requirement through June 30, 2020. As a result, the new date by which the Company has to regain compliance with the minimum bid price requirement is October 19, 2020.

The Company intends to monitor the closing bid price of its common stock and consider its available options to resolve its noncompliance with the minimum bid price requirement. There can be no assurance that the Company will be able to regain compliance with the minimum bid price requirement or that the Company will otherwise be in compliance with other Nasdaq listing criteria. If the Company fails to regain compliance with the minimum bid requirement or to meet the other applicable continued listing requirements for the Nasdaq Capital Market in the future and Nasdaq determines to delist its common stock, the delisting could adversely affect the market price and liquidity of the Company’s common stock and reduce its ability to raise additional capital.

If our common stock is delisted by Nasdaq, our common stock may be eligible to trade on the OTC Bulletin Board or another over-the-counter market. Any such alternative would likely result in it being more difficult for us to raise additional capital through the public or private sale of equity securities and for investors to dispose of, or obtain accurate quotations as to the market value of, the common stock and could result in a decrease in the trading price of our common stock. In addition, there can be no assurance that the common stock would be eligible for trading on any such alternative exchange or markets.

25


As a result of these conditions, we have concluded that substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern exists as conditions and events, considered in the aggregate, indicate that it is probable that we will be unable to meet our obligations as they become due within one year after the date that our condensed consolidated financial statements were issued without raising additional capital. The financial information and condensed consolidated financial statements included in this filing have been prepared on a basis that assumes that we will continue as a going concern, which contemplates the realization of assets and the satisfaction of liabilities and commitments in the normal course of business. This financial information and these financial statements do not include any adjustments that may result from an unfavorable outcome of this uncertainty. Our ability to continue as a going concern is dependent upon our ability to successfully secure sources of financing and ultimately achieve profitable operations.

Cash Flows

The following table provides a summary of our net cash flow activity (in thousands):

 

 

 

For the Three Months

Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

Net cash used in operating activities

 

$

(2,197

)

 

$

(4,023

)

Net cash used in investing activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

 

5,191

 

 

 

107

 

Net change in cash

 

$

2,994

 

 

$

(3,916

)

 

Comparison of the Three Months Ended March 31, 2020 and 2019

Net cash used in operating activities for the three months ended March 31, 2020 consisted primarily of our net loss of $8.2 million, partially offset by non-cash items consisting primarily of stock-based compensation and depreciation and amortization totaling $483,000, as well as warrant inducement expense of $4.8 million. Additionally, cash used in operating activities for the three months ended March 31, 2020 reflected a net increase in cash from changes in operating assets and liabilities of $668,000, primarily due to a decrease in our prepaid expenses and other current assets of $92,000, a decrease in other assets of $67,000 and an increase in our accounts payable and other accrued expenses of $552,000.

Net cash used in operating activities for the three months ended March 31, 2019 consisted primarily of our net loss of $4.9 million, partially offset by non-cash items consisting primarily of stock-based compensation, and depreciation and amortization totaling $256,000. Additionally, cash used in operating activities for the three months ended March 31, 2019 reflected a net increase in cash from changes in operating assets and liabilities of $602,000, primarily due to a decrease in our prepaid expenses and an increase in our other accrued expenses, partially offset by a decrease in our accounts payable.

There was no cash provided by or used in the Company’s investing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019.

Net cash provided by financing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2020 was comprised of $5.2 million in net proceeds from the exercise of warrants by stockholders to purchase approximately 6.9 million shares of common stock.

Net cash provided by financing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2019 was comprised of $107,000 in net proceeds from the 2018 Prospectus for the sale of approximately 25,000 shares of common stock.

CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS AND COMMITMENTS

Contractual Obligations

No material changes to contractual obligations and commitments occurred during the three months ended March 31, 2020.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

We do not have any off-balance sheet arrangements as defined in the rules and regulations of the SEC.

26


Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.

Per §229.305 of Regulation S-K, the Company, designated a Smaller Reporting Company as defined in §229.10(f)(1) of Regulation S-K, is not required to provide the disclosure required by this Item.

Item 4. Controls and Procedures.

Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

As of March 31, 2020, our management, with the participation of our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures. The term “disclosure controls and procedures,” as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), means controls and other procedures of a company that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by a company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms. Disclosure controls and procedures include, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by a company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management, including its principal executive and principal financial officers, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. Management recognizes that any controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving their objectives and management necessarily applies its judgment in evaluating the cost benefit relationship of possible controls and procedures. Based on this evaluation, management concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective as of March 31, 2020 in alerting them in a timely manner to material information required to be disclosed in our periodic reports filed with the SEC.

Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

There have been no changes in our internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) or 15d-15(f) of the Exchange Act) during the quarter ended March 31, 2020 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

27


PART II – OTHER INFORMATION

Item 1. Legal Proceedings.

Information pertaining to legal proceedings is provided under the heading “Legal Proceedings” in Note 5, Commitments and Contingencies, to the condensed consolidated financial statements and is incorporated by reference herein.

Item 1A. Risk Factors.

An investment in shares of our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the following risk factors, as well as the other information in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and in our other public filings. The occurrence of any of these risks could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and/or growth prospects or cause our actual results to differ materially from those contained in forward-looking statements we have made in this report and those we may make from time to time. You should consider all of the risk factors described in our public filings when evaluating our business.

Unless otherwise indicated, references to the terms “Novus”, the “Company”, “we”, “our”, and “us” refer to Novus Therapeutics, Inc.

Risks Related to Our Operations

We have incurred significant operating losses since our inception and expect that we will continue to incur losses over the next several years and may never achieve or maintain profitability.

We have incurred significant annual net operating losses in every year since our inception. We have no products approved for commercial sale and have not generated any revenue from product sales to date, and we continue to incur significant research and development and other expenses related to our ongoing operations. If OP0201 or any future product candidates we develop are not successfully developed and approved, we may never generate any revenue from sales of products. The Company has experienced recurring net losses and negative cash flows from operating activities since its inception. The Company’s net loss for the three months ended March 31, 2020 is $8.2 million. As of March 31, 2020, the Company had cash of $11.8 million, working capital of $11.0 million and an accumulated deficit of $65.8 million. We have not generated any revenues from product sales, have not completed the development of any product candidate and may never have a product candidate approved for commercialization. We expect it will be several years, if ever, before we have a product candidate ready for commercialization. We have financed our operations to date primarily through sales of equity. We have devoted substantially all of our financial resources and efforts to research and development, including preclinical studies and our clinical trials. Our net losses may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter and year to year and will depend, in part, on the rate at which we incur expenses and our ability to generate revenue. Net losses and negative cash flows have had, and will continue to have, an adverse effect on our stockholders’ equity and working capital.

We are focused primarily on developing products from the surfactant platform as a potential first-in-class treatment option for patients at risk for or with otitis media (“OM”) (middle ear inflammation with or without infection). Although we have successfully manufactured Good Manufacturing Procedures (“cGMP”) batches of OP0201 nasal aerosol drug product suitable for our phase 1 and phase 2a clinical trials, this was done on a smaller scale with a drug product candidate that has a short shelf life. Additional formulation and drug development of OP0201 and/or the dry-powder unit dose device product candidate will be required prior to initiation of future clinical trials. The full cost and timing of this additional development is uncertain. As a result of disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, our timeline for completing formulation development and selecting a product candidate has been delayed an indeterminate amount of time. We expect that it will be several years, if ever, before we have a product candidate ready for commercialization. If we are unable to successfully generate clinical data for the surfactant program, we may have greater difficulty raising additional capital on favorable terms, or at all. Even if we successfully generate positive clinical data for the surfactant program, we may have difficulty raising additional capital due to overall economic uncertainty, as well as uncertainty around our development timelines, which have been delayed due to the ongoing pandemic.

We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and increasing operating losses for the foreseeable future. The net losses that we incur may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter. We anticipate that our expenses will increase substantially if and as we:

 

continue formulation development of our surfactant or other product candidates;

 

continue device development for our drug-device product candidates;

 

continue nonclinical and clinical development of our product candidates;

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seek to identify and acquire additional product candidates;

 

acquire or in-license other products and technologies;

 

enter into collaboration arrangements with regards to product discovery or development;

 

develop manufacturing processes;

 

seek marketing approvals for any of our product candidates that successfully complete clinical trials;

 

establish a sales, marketing, and distribution infrastructure to commercialize any products for which we may obtain marketing approval;

 

maintain, expand, and protect our intellectual property portfolio;

 

hire additional personnel;

 

add operational, financial and management information systems and personnel, including personnel to support our product development and planned future commercialization efforts; and

 

operate as a public company.

To become and remain profitable, we must develop and eventually commercialize a product or products with significant market potential. This will require us to be successful in a range of challenging activities, including completing clinical trials of our product candidates, obtaining marketing approval for these product candidates and manufacturing, marketing and selling those products for which we obtain marketing approval. We may never succeed in these activities and, even if we do, may never generate revenues that are significant or large enough to achieve profitability. If we do achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis. Our failure to become and remain profitable would decrease the value of the Company, could impair our ability to raise capital, maintain our nonclinical and clinical development efforts, and expand our business or continue our operations and may require us to raise additional capital that may dilute the ownership interest of common stockholders. A decline in the value of the Company could also cause stockholders to lose all or part of their investment.

We are early in our development efforts and currently have only one product candidate in clinical development. If we are unable to successfully develop and commercialize this or any other product candidate, or if we experience significant delays in doing so, our business will be materially harmed.

We currently do not have any products that have gained regulatory approval. We have invested substantially all our efforts and financial resources in product development, including funding our formulation and device development, manufacturing, nonclinical studies, and clinical trials. Our ability to generate product revenues, which we do not expect will occur for several years, if ever, will depend heavily on the successful development and eventual commercialization of one or more drug candidates. As a result, our business is substantially dependent on our ability to successfully complete the development of and obtain regulatory approval for our or additional product candidates.

We have not yet demonstrated an ability to successfully overcome many of the risks and uncertainties frequently encountered by companies in new and rapidly evolving fields, particularly in the pharmaceutical area. For example, to execute our business plan, we will need to successfully:

 

execute formulation, manufacturing, clinical, and nonclinical development activities;

 

manufacture drug product at commercial scale;

 

establish and confirm commercially acceptable stability (shelf-life) of our drug products;

 

in-license or acquire other product candidates and advance them through clinical development;

 

obtain required regulatory approvals for the development and commercialization of OP0201 or other product candidates;

 

maintain, leverage, and expand our intellectual property portfolio;

 

build and maintain robust sales, distribution and marketing capabilities, either on our own or in collaboration with strategic partners;

 

gain market acceptance for any approved and marketed drug products;

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obtain and maintain adequate product pricing and reimbursement;

 

develop and maintain any strategic relationships we elect to enter; and

 

manage our spending as costs and expenses increase due to product manufacturing, nonclinical development, clinical trials, regulatory approvals, post-marketing commitments, and commercialization.

If we are unsuccessful in accomplishing these objectives, we may not be able to successfully develop and commercialize our or other product candidates, and our business will suffer.

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and actions taken in response to it may result in additional disruptions to our business operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Our business and its operations, including but not limited to ongoing or planned research and development activities, have been adversely affected by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, which has also caused significant disruption in the operations of third parties upon whom we rely. The COVID-19 pandemic and actions taken by governments, businesses, and individuals in response to it, including executive orders, shelter-in-place orders and work-from-home policies, have had effects that have and may continue to negatively impact productivity, disrupt our business and delay our formulation and device development timelines for our surfactant product candidates. For example, in response to public health directives and orders, we have ceased all non-essential business travel and implemented work-from-home policies for all of our employees, resulting in reduced productivity. These and similar, and perhaps more severe, disruptions in our operations could negatively impact our business, operating results and financial condition.

Quarantines, shelter-in-place, executive and similar government orders, or the perception that such orders, shutdowns or other restrictions on the conduct of business operations could occur, related to COVID-19 or other infectious diseases, could also impact personnel at the third parties on whom we are highly dependent for clinical trials as well as formulation and device development in the United States and other countries, or the timing, availability or cost of materials we use or require to conduct our business.

The COVID-19 pandemic did not materially affect our ongoing OP0201 study C-006; however, if COVID-19 continues to spread in the United States and elsewhere, we may experience additional disruptions that could severely impact our business and development activities, including, but not limited to:

 

delays in necessary interactions with local regulators, ethics committees and other important agencies and contractors due to limitations in employee resources or forced furlough of government employees;

 

limitations in employee resources that would otherwise be focused on the conduct of our development activities, including because of sickness of employees or their families or the desire of employees to avoid contact with large groups of people;

 

refusal of the FDA to accept data from clinical trials in affected geographies;

 

delays in procuring drug substance and/or in manufacturing drug product due to limitations in employee resources or forced furloughs at our contract manufacturing organizations; and

 

delays in initiation of future clinical trials, including delays in receiving authorization from local regulatory authorities to initiate such clinical trials.

The spread of COVID-19, which has caused a broad impact globally, may materially affect us economically. While it is not possible to predict the potential economic impact brought by COVID-19, and the duration of such impact, the pandemic has resulted in significant disruption of global financial markets, which could reduce our ability to access capital and negatively affect our future liquidity. In addition, a recession or market correction resulting from the spread of COVID-19 and related government orders and restrictions could materially affect our business and the value of our common stock.

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to evolve rapidly. The ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic or a similar public health emergency is highly uncertain and subject to change. We do not yet know the full extent of potential delays or impacts on our business, our formulation and device development efforts, healthcare systems or the global economy as a whole. However, any one or a combination of these events could have an adverse effect on our business operations, which could prevent or delay us from obtaining approval for our product candidates, as well as our ability to raise additional capital, which is necessary for us to sustain our operations.

 

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Our short operating history may make it difficult to evaluate the success of our business to date and to assess our future viability.

We are an early development stage pharmaceutical company. Our ongoing operations to date have been limited to organizing and staffing the Company, business planning, raising capital, acquiring and developing technology, identifying potential product candidates. Since then, operations related to development of OP0201 nasal aerosol have included arranging for third-party vendors to formulate and manufacture cGMP clinical material as well as preparing and conducting three phase 1 clinical trials and one phase 2a clinical trial. We have not yet demonstrated our ability to successfully manufacture drug product in large enough quantities and with stability to support additional clinical trials, execute pivotal clinical trials, obtain marketing approvals, manufacture a commercial scale product or arrange for a third party to do so on our behalf, or conduct sales and marketing activities necessary for successful product commercialization. It can take many years to develop a new medicine from the time it is discovered to when it is available for treating patients. Consequently, any predictions made about our future success or viability based on our short operating history to date may not be as accurate as they could be if we had a longer operating history.

In addition, as an early stage business, we may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other known and unknown factors. To successfully market any of our product candidates, we will need to transition from a company with a clinical development focus to a company capable of supporting commercial activities. We may not be successful in such a transition.

Drug development involves a lengthy and expensive process with an uncertain outcome, including failure to demonstrate safety and efficacy to the satisfaction of the FDA or similar regulatory authorities outside the United States. We may incur additional costs or experience delays in completing, or ultimately be unable to complete, the formulation and commercialization of our product candidates.

We continue to conduct formulation and device development of products from the surfactant platform. We are highly dependent on third parties for formulation and device development as well as manufacturing of drug product for future clinical trials and commercial supply.

There is a risk that additional nonclinical and/or clinical safety studies will be required by the FDA or similar regulatory authorities outside the U.S. and/or that subsequent studies will not match results seen in prior studies.

Reformulation work for OP0102 foam otic to explore adding a second active ingredient (anesthetic) to address immediate relief of ear pain associated with AOE commenced in 2016 but was subsequently put on hold in 2017. If development of OP0102 foam otic is resumed, additional formulation development and clinical trials with the new foam otic combination product (antibiotic and anesthetic) will need to be conducted.

Given the early stage of development for both products, the risk of failure for both of our product candidates is high. Before obtaining marketing approval from regulatory authorities for the sale of any product candidate, we must complete formulation and device development for our products, conduct nonclinical trials, and then conduct extensive clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of our product candidates in humans. Formulation and device development, nonclinical and clinical testing are all expensive activities, difficult to design and implement, and can take years to complete. The outcome of nonclinical and clinical trials is inherently uncertain. Failure can occur at any time during the development program, including during the clinical trial process. Further, the results of nonclinical studies and early clinical trials of our product candidates, as well as earlier generation formulations may not be predictive of the results of later-stage clinical trials. Interim results of a clinical trial do not necessarily predict final results. For instance, the results of our studies with the earlier generation OP0101 formulation may not be predictive of the results of studies conducted with OP0102 formulation, if such program is resumed. Moreover, nonclinical and clinical data are often susceptible to varying interpretations and analyses, and many companies that have believed their product candidates performed satisfactorily in nonclinical and clinical trials have nonetheless failed to obtain marketing approval of their products. It is impossible to predict when or if any of our product candidates will prove effective, safe and well-tolerated in humans or will receive regulatory approval.

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We may experience delays in our clinical trials, and we do not know whether planned clinical trials will begin or enroll subjects on time, need to be redesigned or be completed on schedule, if at all. There can be no assurance that the EMA, or the Medicines & Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (“MHRA”), the United Kingdom regulatory authority, will approve Clinical Trial Application’s for any of our product candidates in the future. There is also no assurance that the FDA will not put any of our product candidates on clinical hold in the future. We may experience numerous unforeseen events during, or as a result of, clinical trials that could delay or prevent our ability to receive marketing approval or commercialize our product candidates. Clinical trials may be delayed, suspended or prematurely terminated for a variety of reasons, such as:

 

delay or failure in reaching agreement with the FDA, EMA, MHRA or a comparable foreign regulatory authority on a trial design that we want to execute;

 

delay or failure in obtaining authorization to commence a trial or inability to comply with conditions imposed by a regulatory authority regarding the scope or design of a clinical trial;

 

delays in reaching, or failure to reach, agreement on acceptable clinical trial contracts or clinical trial protocols with prospective trial sites;

 

delays in completing formulation development and manufacturing as a prerequisite to commencing clinical work;

 

inability, delay, or failure in identifying and maintaining a sufficient number of trial sites, many of which may already be engaged in other clinical programs;

 

delay or failure in recruiting and enrolling suitable subjects to participate in a trial;

 

delay or failure in having subjects complete a trial or return for post-treatment follow-up;

 

clinical sites and investigators deviating from trial protocol, failing to conduct the trial in accordance with regulatory requirements, or dropping out of a trial;

 

lack of adequate funding to continue the clinical trial, including the incurrence of unforeseen costs due to enrollment delays, requirements to conduct additional clinical trials and increased expenses associated with the services of our contract research organizations (“CROs”) and other third parties;

 

clinical trials of our product candidates may produce negative or inconclusive results, and we may decide, or regulators may require us, to conduct additional clinical trials or abandon product development programs;

 

the number of patients required for clinical trials of our product candidates may be larger than we anticipate, enrollment in these clinical trials may be slower than we anticipate, or participants may drop out of these clinical trials at a higher rate than we anticipate;

 

we may experience delays or difficulties in the enrollment of patients that our product candidates are designed to target;

 

our third-party contractors may fail to comply with regulatory requirements or meet their contractual obligations to us in a timely manner, or at all;

 

we may have difficulty partnering with experienced CROs and study sites that can identify patients that our product candidates are designed to target and run our clinical trials effectively;

 

regulators or IRBs may require that we or our investigators suspend or terminate clinical research for various reasons, including noncompliance with regulatory requirements or a finding that the participants are being exposed to unacceptable health risks;

 

the cost of clinical trials of our product candidates may be greater than we anticipate;

 

the supply or quality of our product candidates or other materials necessary to conduct clinical trials of our product candidates may be insufficient or inadequate; or

 

there may be changes in governmental regulations or administrative actions. In addition, our development and commercialization activities could be harmed or delayed by a shutdown of the U.S. government, including the FDA. For example, a prolonged shutdown may significantly delay the FDA's ability to timely review and process any submissions we may file or cause other regulatory delays, which could materially and adversely affect our business.

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If we are required to conduct additional clinical trials or other testing of our product candidates beyond those that we currently contemplate, if we are unable to successfully complete clinical trials of our product candidates or other testing, if the results of these trials or tests are not positive or are only modestly positive, or if there are safety concerns, we may:

 

be delayed in obtaining marketing approval for our product candidates;

 

not obtain marketing approval at all;

 

obtain approval for indications or patient populations that are not as broad as intended or desired;

 

obtain approval with labeling that includes significant use or distribution restrictions or safety warnings that would reduce the potential market for our products or inhibit our ability to successfully commercialize our products;

 

be subject to additional post-marketing restrictions and/or testing requirements; or

 

have the product removed from the market after obtaining marketing approval.

Our product development costs will also increase if we experience delays in testing or marketing approvals. We do not know whether any of our nonclinical studies or clinical trials will need to be restructured or will be completed on schedule, or at all. Significant nonclinical or clinical trial delays also could shorten any periods during which we may have the exclusive right to commercialize our product candidates or may allow our competitors to bring products to market before we do and impair our ability to successfully commercialize our product candidates and may harm our business and results of operations.

Additionally, because we are developing a drug-device combination product, we will be subject to greater regulatory scrutiny and technical challenges. Devices such as our metered-dose inhaler are regulated by a separate division within the FDA. Even if our drug compound is shown to be safe and effective, our delivery device must also demonstrate that it can reliably deliver a consistent dose of the drug across repeated uses. This is challenging and is subject to a further layer of regulatory review before our product can be approved. If we are unsuccessful in addressing these technical and regulatory challenges, our prospects could be adversely affected.  

If we experience delays or difficulties in the enrollment of patients in clinical trials, our receipt of necessary regulatory approvals could be delayed or prevented and expenses for the development of our product candidates could increase.

We may not be able to initiate or continue clinical trials for our product candidates if we are unable to locate and enroll a sufficient number of eligible patients to participate in these trials to demonstrate safety and efficacy. We do not know whether the ongoing or planned clinical trials will enroll subjects in a timely fashion, require redesign of essential trial elements or be completed on its projected schedule. In addition, competitors may have ongoing clinical trials for product candidates that treat related or the same indications as our product candidates, and patients who would otherwise be eligible for our clinical trials may instead enroll in clinical trials of our competitors’ product candidates. Our inability to enroll a sufficient number of patients for our clinical trials would result in significant delays and could require us to abandon one or more clinical trials altogether.

Patient enrollment is affected by other factors including:

 

the eligibility criteria for the study in question;

 

the perceived risks and benefits of the product candidate under study;

 

the efforts to facilitate timely enrollment in clinical trials;

 

the inability to identify and maintain a sufficient number of trial sites, many of which may already be engaged in other clinical trial programs, including some that may be for the same disease indication;

 

the patient referral practices of physicians;

 

the proximity and availability of clinical trial sites for prospective patients;

 

the seasonality and severity of diseases that affect enrollment (e.g. influenzae season for OM);

 

ambiguous or negative interim results of our clinical trials, or results that are inconsistent with earlier results;

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feedback from regulatory authorities, IRBs, ethics committees (“ECs”), or data safety monitoring boards, or results from earlier stage or concurrent nonclinical and clinical trials, that might require modifications to the protocol;

 

decisions by regulatory authorities, IRBs, ECs, or the Company, or recommendations by data safety monitoring boards, to suspend or terminate clinical trials at any time for safety issues or for any other reason; and

 

unacceptable risk-benefit profile or unforeseen safety issues or adverse effects.

Enrollment delays in our clinical trials may result in increased development costs for our product candidates, which would cause the value of the Company to decline and limit our ability to obtain additional financing.

If serious adverse events or unacceptable side effects are identified during the development of our product candidates, we may need to abandon or limit our development of some of our product candidates.

If our product candidates are associated with undesirable effects in nonclinical or clinical trials or have characteristics that are unexpected, we may need to interrupt, delay or abandon their development or limit development to more narrow uses or subpopulations in which the undesirable side effects or other characteristics are less prevalent, less severe or more acceptable from a risk-benefit perspective. Any occurrences of clinically significant adverse events with our product candidates may harm our business, financial condition and prospects significantly.

OP0201 nasal aerosol is an early‑product candidate, and the side effect profile in humans has not been fully established. Currently unknown, drug-related side effects may be identified through ongoing and future clinical trials and, as such, these possible drug-related side effects could affect patient recruitment, the ability of enrolled subjects to complete the trial, or result in potential product liability claims. The side effect profile of the dry-powder unit dose product candidate will need to be fully established and the safety profile may differ from the safety profile of OP0201 nasal aerosol.

Risks Related to Our Financial Position and Need for Additional Capital

We have concluded and disclosed in the footnotes to our consolidated financial statements, included elsewhere within this Annual Report, that we do not have sufficient cash to fund our operations through 12 months from the date of issuance of the most recent financial statements.

Our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report have been prepared on a basis that assumes that we will continue as a going concern and does not include any adjustments that may result from the outcome of this uncertainty.

Our ability to continue as a going concern is dependent upon a number of factors, including our ability to obtain the necessary financing to meet our obligations and repay our liabilities arising from obligations that become due in the ordinary course of business. Management currently believes that it will be necessary for us to raise additional funding in the form of an equity financing from the sale of common stock or the issuance of debt. There can be no guarantee that we will successfully raise all the funding we require. However, substantial doubt about a company’s ability to continue as a going concern is generally viewed unfavorably by current and prospective investors, as well as by analysts and creditors. As a result, it may be more difficult for us to raise the additional financing necessary to continue to operate our business and we may be forced to significantly alter our business strategy, substantially curtail our current operations, or cease operations altogether.

We will need substantial additional funding. If we are unable to raise capital when needed, we would be compelled to delay, reduce, or eliminate our product development programs or explore strategic alternatives resulting in a merger or sale of the company.

We expect our expenses to increase in parallel with our ongoing activities, particularly as we continue our nonclinical and clinical development, identify new clinical candidates and initiate clinical trials of, and seek marketing approval for, our product candidates. In addition, if we obtain marketing approval for any of our product candidates, we expect to incur significant commercialization expenses related to product sales, marketing, manufacturing and distribution. If we are unable to raise capital when needed or on attractive terms, we would be forced to delay, reduce or eliminate our nonclinical and clinical development programs or any future commercialization efforts.

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We have sufficient capital to complete the ongoing OP0201 phase 2a clinical trial but will require additional capital to conduct additional surfactant formulation and manufacturing activities, additional clinical trials and ultimately to commercialize a surfactant drug product, if approved. Even if we have positive data in our phase 2a clinical trial, there can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully raise additional capital needed to sustain our operations. If we have negative or inconclusive data in our phase 2a clinical trial, we may find it difficult or impossible to raise the additional capital needed to continue as a going concern. We may also need to raise additional funds to pursue other development activities related to additional product candidates that we may develop. Our funding needs may fluctuate significantly based on a number of factors, such as:

 

the scope, progress, results and costs of formulation development and manufacture of drug product to support nonclinical and clinical development of our product candidates;

 

the extent to which we enter into additional collaboration arrangements regarding product discovery or development, or acquire or in-license products or technologies;

 

our ability to establish additional collaborations with favorable terms, if at all;

 

the costs, timing, and outcome of regulatory review of our product candidates;

 

the costs of future commercialization activities, including product sales, marketing, manufacturing and distribution, for any of our product candidates for which we receive marketing approval;

 

revenue, if any, received from commercial sales of our product candidates, should any of our product candidates receive marketing approval; and

 

the costs of preparing, filing and prosecuting patent applications, maintaining and enforcing our intellectual property rights and defending intellectual property-related claims.

Identifying potential product candidates and conducting formulation development, nonclinical testing and clinical trials is a time-consuming, expensive and uncertain process that takes years to complete, and we may never generate the necessary data or results required to obtain marketing approval and achieve product sales. In addition, our product candidates, if approved, may not achieve commercial success. Our commercial revenues, if any, will be derived from sales of products that we do not expect to be commercially available for several years, if at all. Accordingly, we will need to continue to rely on additional financing to achieve our business objectives. Even if we generate positive clinical data, additional financing may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. If we are unable to raise sufficient capital to fund our planned operations, we may be forced to curtail operations, explore strategic alternatives, including a sale of the company or a merger, or potentially cease operations if no other options are available.

Raising additional capital may cause dilution to our stockholders, restrict our operations or require us to relinquish rights to our technologies or product candidates.

Until such time, if ever, as we can generate substantial product revenues, we expect to finance our cash needs through a combination of equity offerings and debt financings. We do not have any committed external source of funds. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the ownership interest of common stockholders will be diluted, and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect the rights of common stockholders. Debt financing and preferred equity financing, if available, may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends.

We cannot be certain that additional funding will be available on acceptable terms, or at all. If we are unable to raise additional funds when needed, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our product development or future commercialization efforts.

In addition, we are authorized to issue, without stockholder approval, 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, of which 3,796 shares of Series X preferred stock were issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2020. Each share of Series X preferred stock is convertible into 1,000 shares of common stock. The total number of shares of common stock issuable upon conversion of all issued shares of Series X preferred stock would be 3,796,000 shares. Each share is convertible at the option of the holder at any time, provided that the holder will be prohibited from converting into common stock if, as a result of such conversion, the holder, together with its affiliates, would beneficially own a number of shares above a conversion blocker, which is set at 9.99% of our total common stock then issued and outstanding immediately following the conversion

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of such shares. If holders of shares of our Series X preferred stock elect to convert their preferred shares into common stock, such conversion would cause dilution to our current holders of common stock.

Future sales of shares by existing stockholders could cause the Company’s stock price to decline.

If existing stockholders of the Company sell, or indicate an intention to sell, substantial amounts of the Company’s common stock in the public market the trading price of the common stock of the company could decline. At March 31, 2020, the Company had approximately 16.1 million shares outstanding.

Risks Related to Regulatory Approval of Our Product Candidates and Other Legal Compliance Matters

If we are not able to obtain, or if there are delays in obtaining, required regulatory approvals, or the approvals may be for a narrow indication, we may not be able to commercialize our product candidates, and our ability to generate revenue may be materially impaired.

Our product candidates must be approved by the FDA pursuant to a new drug application in the United States and by other regulatory authorities outside the United States prior to commercialization in the respective regions. The process of obtaining marketing approvals, both in the United States and outside the United States, is expensive and takes several years, if approval is obtained at all, and can vary substantially based upon a variety of factors, including the type, complexity and novelty of the product candidates involved. Failure to obtain marketing approval for a product candidate will prevent us from commercializing the product candidate. We have not received approval to market any of our product candidates from regulatory authorities in any country. We have no experience in filing and supporting the applications necessary to gain marketing approvals for ENT products and may engage third-party consultants to assist in this process. Securing marketing approval requires the submission of extensive nonclinical and clinical data, and other supporting information to regulatory authorities for each therapeutic indication to establish the product candidate’s safety and efficacy. Securing marketing approval also requires the submission of information about the product formulation and manufacturing process to, and inspection of manufacturing facilities by, the regulatory authorities. Our product candidates may not be effective, may be only moderately effective or may prove to have undesirable or unintended side effects, toxicities or other characteristics that may preclude our obtaining marketing approval or prevent or limit commercial use. Regulatory authorities have substantial discretion in the approval process and may refuse to accept any application or may decide that our data are insufficient for approval and require additional nonclinical, clinical or other data. In addition, varying interpretations of the data obtained from nonclinical and clinical trials could delay, limit or prevent marketing approval of a product candidate. Changes in marketing approval policies during the development period, changes in or the enactment of additional statutes or regulations, or changes in regulatory review for each submitted product application, may also cause delays in or prevent the approval of an application.

Any marketing approval we ultimately obtain may be for fewer or more limited indications than requested or subject to restrictions or post-approval commitments that render the approved product not commercially viable or its market potential significantly impaired. In addition, regulatory agencies may not approve the labeling claims that are necessary or desirable for the successful commercialization of our product candidates.

If we experience delays in obtaining approval or if we fail to obtain approval of our product candidates, the commercial prospects for our product candidates may be harmed and our ability to generate revenues will be materially impaired.

Failure to obtain marketing approval in international jurisdictions would prevent our product candidates from being marketed outside the United States  

In order to market and sell our products in the EU and other international jurisdictions outside of the United States, we or our third-party collaborators must obtain separate marketing approvals and comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements. The approval procedure varies among countries and may require additional nonclinical, clinical or health outcome data. In addition, the time required to obtain approval may differ substantially amongst international jurisdictions. The regulatory approval process outside the United States generally includes all the risks associated with obtaining FDA approval. In addition to regulatory approval, in many countries outside the United States, it is required that the product be approved for reimbursement before the product can be approved for sale in that country. We or these third parties may not obtain approvals from regulatory authorities outside the United States on a timely basis, if at all. Approval by the EMA, MHRA, or FDA does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries or jurisdictions, and approval by one regulatory authority outside the United States does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries or jurisdictions or by the FDA. We may not be able to file for marketing approvals and may not receive necessary approvals to commercialize our products in any market.

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